European Job Quality Index, by country and by gender (2015)
The European Job Quality Index (JQI) shows a wide divergence in the quality of work between groups of workers and across countries (for details see Piasna 2017). Figure 2.17 illustrates the magnitude of the gender gap. Men fare better in terms of wages, forms of employment and job security. This is driven by a higher share of women in nonstandard employment, such as temporary
and part-time jobs, as well as a higher rate of involuntary temporary work. Such segregation in non-standard forms of work is one of the factors contributing to the gender wage gap. This contrasts with women’s better quality of working time and working conditions. The latter is mainly related to sectoral gender segregation, with women less likely to be exposed to certain physical risk factors. Job quality is very uneven across the Member States (Figure 2.18). In 2015, overall job quality was particularly low in Greece, Romania, Spain, Poland and Hungary, while Denmark, Luxembourg, Finland and Sweden were among the top performers. Job quality was lower in post-2004 accession countries compared to the EU15 group. The gender gap also differed substantially between countries, with the most visible advantage for women in Poland, Hungary, Croatia and Malta, and a gap in favour of men in Finland, Luxembourg and Germany.