Main professions split along gender lines and Gender Gap (2016)

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More females than males in personal care, cleaning and teaching professions in the EU

In the most common 20 occupations that cover 76% of the employed persons in the EU, the highest representation of women in the EU in 2016 is recorded in occupations related to personal care (89%), cleaners (84%), office clerks (80%), health technicians (78%) and teachers (71%).


More males than females in construction, transport, industry and science occupations in the EU

Conversely, men are overrepresented among builders (97%), drivers and mobile plant operators (96%), metal workers (96%), science and engineering technicians (83%) and science and engineering professionals (74%).

Women in the EU earned on average 16% less than men in 2016

In 2016, the unadjusted gender pay gap stood at just over 16% in the European Union (EU). In other words, women earned on average 84 cents for every euro a man makes per hour. Across Member States, the gender pay gap in 2016 ranged from just over 5% in Romania and Italy, to more than 25% in Estonia, followed by the Czech Republic and Germany (both almost 22%).

source: Eurostat (1) (2)

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